Guelph, ON, Canada



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We all have biases, and they’re broken down into two distinct types: Biological and Cultural biases with influences varying. Learn how what they are and how to identify them while also conducting a ‘Bias Check’ on ourselves. This allows us to more fairly understand why it is we believe the information we now do.

Step 2: B is for Bias
Step 3: C is for Context

We must be able to appreciate things like time, place, and circumstance when considering the context in which information is found. To take information out of context leads to an irrelevant critique lacking in merit.

Step 1: A is for Argument

What’s the point and what are your reasons for x, y & z? Whether it’s in casual or formal dialogue, being able to state your point of view clearly and efficiently is an important skill, in this section, I discuss how exactly this is done.

By understanding the importance of how evidence is attained, and distinguishing between what is considered to be reliable and unreliable resources in support of any argument, we gain a better appreciation for the rigour and structured nature of scientific reasoning.

How to Disagree and Get Along

In the final chapter, we examine the ways in which the Six Step Critical Thinking skill set can lead to fairer discussions about controversial topics. And the Six Steps will help people who have heated discussions and disagree entirely to get along.

Step 5: E is for Evidence
The goal?

Be more empowered to have meaningful discussions about important issues, disagree entirely, and still be able to get along.


Christopher DiCarlo has come up with an easy-to-read and very helpful guide to good reasoning. It’s packed with interesting and important examples, as well as useful tips about what makes a good - and a bad - argument. A lot of people can benefit from Six Steps to Better Reasoning. 

Jan Narveson

Distinguished Professor Emeritus,

Department of Philosophy, University of Waterloo

Six Steps To Better Thinking -  Key Ideas
Step 6: F is for Fallacies

In this chapter, some of the key ideas involve defining fallacies as errors and reasoning.  These include but are not limited to the following: Ad Hominem, Ad Ignorantiam, Begging the Question, Equivocation, False Dilemma, Hasty Generalization, Post Hoc Fallacy, Slippery Slope, etc.

Step 4: D is for Diagram

Diagramming arguments is an essential skill that all good critical thinkers possess. Understanding the key components of an argument leads to a greater capacity by which to dissect an argument to determine its value.

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